This refers to either a static or expandable stick. It is kept holstered when not needed and so as not to interfere with an officer's movement. It can be pulled out of its holster to show escalation or used to cause temporary incapacitation.

Baton rounds / AEP rounds

Baton rounds are intended to be less lethal than firearms. They are fired from a specially designed gun and their use is restricted to authorised and trained police officers. Attenuating energy projectiles (AEP) are soft-nosed projectiles intended to soothe the impact, but deliver a high amount of energy over an extended period

CS spray / PAVA / Incapacitant / Irritant Spray

There are two types of incapacitant spray: PAVA and CS spray. They are used to incapacitate someone by irritating the skin, causing them to experience tears and coughing.

The spray canister can be pulled out of its holster to show escalation or deployed to cause temporary incapacitation.


Warwickshire Police and West Mercia Police have specially trained firearms units providing a 24/7 armed response for our communities. The presence of an armed officer can be enough to diffuse a situation and occasions where a firearm is used are incredibly rare.


There are two forms of handcuffing, compliant and non-compliant. Compliant handcuffing may be used for transport or to assist in a search of an individual. Non-compliant handcuffing is used once and officer has gained control of an individual and is used to protect the officer and other people from harm.

Police dog / horse

Specially trained animals, including dogs and horses, can be used in situations where police officers need to control or pursue people.

Restraint equipment / Spit guards

Specialist equipment used to reduce movement. This equipment aids in controlling behaviour and thus preventing harm to everyone involved in an incident. It includes the use of body or limb restraints, such as an Emergency Restraint Belt (ERB), Velcro or fast straps, and spit guards.


A shield may be used by Police Support Unit officers to protect themselves and others and potentially to strike an individual.

Tactical communication

Tactical communication quite simply involves talking to a suspect. This includes issuing orders such as asking them to move or stop/change their actions.

Taser / CED

The technical name for a Taser is a Conducted Energy Device (CED). It is a tool that can be drawn as a warning/demonstration of an incident escalating or used to temporarily immobilise an individual.

Unarmed skills / Physical hold / force

Unarmed skills include the physical holding, pinning or restraining of a person. It also includes any form of physical contact - for example, pushing, pulling, striking or pinning someone to ground.


Refers to any other method of force outside the standard techniques set out above - such as using a police vehicle to stop someone moving or fleeing.